Fiber Optic Training
This write up is intended for reference only and its purpose is to help you better understand the relation of all the fiber products we offer and how they work together. This article is for basic knowledge only and can be used when comparing our fiber products offered to those sold online by other online resellers. (Fiber Optic Communication) This fiber optic reference article is suitable for beginners, online resellers and end users who buy fiber optic products on or through the internet. If you are an engineer or if you are already familiar with fiber optic products and systems, you may already know some of the material being covered.
Fiber optic products sold online may vary, ranging from (Fiber Optic Bulk Cable) to related components of all types. This will include fiber optic patch cables, fiber optic jumpers, fiber optic pigtails, fiber optic loop backs and fiber optic splitters, just to mention a few. Generally all fiber optic products are classified by single mode fiber type and multimode fiber type. For single mode, the cable spec is commonly referred to as 9/125 fiber and for multimode 50/125 fiber and 62.5/125 fiber. Single mode and multi-mode are the optical fiber types. Single mode fiber is called so because the light travels in nearly a straight line, allowing for faster signals and data transfer. Multimode fiber causes the light to bouce off the inner walls of the fiber, slightly slowing down the signal.
Single mode fiber (SMF) typically has a yellow jacket, where as multi-mode fiber (MMF) typically has a orange jacket. This helps identify the different cable types a bit easier. The cable diameter of SMF and MMF is usually 2mm or 3mm in outer diameter; sometimes 0.9mm diameter cable is also used (mainly on pigtails). Simplex fiber optic cable, duplex fiber optic cable and multi fiber cable assemblies are classified according to the optical fiber cable structure. If you cut fiber optic patch cable in the middle, you get two pieces of fiber optic pigtails; the term fiber optic pigtail is simple as that. Generally speaking, multimode fiber is more expensive than single mode fiber types based on the same structure. You may notice there are riser fiber cables and plenum fiber cables, which are different fire-resistant standards in the U.S.A. If you are selling or using the products in European countries, you will need RoHS compliant fiber optic products. RoHS is a required standard to protect the health and safety of the end user and the environment. Of all the fiber cable assemblies, insertion loss and return loss are two very important parameters.
There are many kinds of fiber optic connectors used on the ends of fiber optic cables to connect the cable to the fiber equipment. Some of the different fiber optic connectors types are, SC, LC, ST, FC, MU, MTRJ, E2000, SMA, ESCON and FDDI, most having both a single mode and multimode version available. Each connector has a different polish style of the fiber optic connector ferrules: PC, UPC and APC. Each polish style has a different angle at which the connection is made.
Fiber optic adapters, also called fiber optic couplers, are used to connect the two fiber optic connectors. When joining two of the same style connector, (ex: LC to LC) a female to female coupler is used. When connecting two different connectors, (ex: LC to SC) a female to male coupler is used and is sometimes called a hybrid adapter. Special adapters like female to male types are not as commonly used and are relatively more expensive.
Fiber optic attenuators are used to reduce the optical power of the fiber optic line while it links the two fiber optic connectors. The most widely used attenuators are SC, FC, LC, and ST, female to male style.
Fiber optic closures or management boxes are used to organize and protect fiber optic cable. Fiber splice closures are typically used with outdoor cables, which are usually used as backbones of the line. Fiber trays are usually used inside the fiber optic splice closures. These products are called fiber cable management devices.
Fiber optic converters and fiber optic video transceivers convert copper electrical signals to optical fiber as the media to transmit the signals. Fiber optic media converters are usually referred to as Ethernet fiber converters, which are used to transmit between Ethernet and optical fiber signals. They are also used to extend the working range of the Ethernet networks. Fiber optic video transceivers are used in security purposes, helping transmit signals from many monitor cameras via a single optical fiber cable, converting the electrical signal to an optical signal and changed back to video signal to be displayed on the screen.SFP transceivers and GBIC transceivers are generally used in switches or routers with the according slot or port.